Both India and Pakistan are sharing the water of Indus and its tributaries for the last 56 years.
In the aftermath of recent attack on army in Uri, India is reviewing the provisions of treaty to put pressure on Pakistan and to increase India’s use of the river waters.
So, what is Indus Water Treaty all about ? Why is it important for both the nations? Let us simplify things for you by explaining the intricacies of the Treaty.
1) The Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960 in Karachi by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan.
2) It was arranged by the World Bank.
3) The treaty administers how river Indus and its tributaries that flow in both the countries will be utilised.
4) According to the treaty, Beas, Ravi and Sutlej, also called the eastern rivers are to be governed by India, while, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum or the western rivers are under Pakistan’s control.
5) India uses only 20 per cent of the water of the Indus, which flows through it. Whereas, Pakistan is using 80 per cent water.
6) A Permanent Indus Commission was set up as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the Treaty. The Commission solves disputes arising over water sharing.
7) The Treaty also provides arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably.
8) Though Indus originates from Tibet, China has been kept out of the Treaty. If China decides to stop or change the flow of the river, it will affect both India and Pakistan.
9) Despite using 80 per cent water, Pakistan has been complaining of not receiving enough water and has even gone for international arbitration.
10) If India cuts off water supply to Pakistan, it could cause major crisis in the country as a majority of its areas are dependent on Indus water.