Why Makar Sankranti is on 14th or 15th January every year?


In North India it is called Makar Sankranti, it is known as Pongal in Tamil Nadu while in Gujarat it is called Uttarayan. In Assam it is called Maghi Bihu and in Karnataka it is called Sugi Hubba, in Kerala it is called Makarviklu and in Kashmir it is Shishur Sankrant.
This festival is celebrated not only in India but also in neighboring countries like Nepal and Bangladesh. People celebrate it according to different religious beliefs but behind this festival there is an astronomical event.

Capricorn means the constellation of capricon which is called Capricorn. There is a slight difference between the capricon of astronomy and the Capricorn of Indian astrology.

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Constellation is called a special pattern made of stars that can be identified, since ancient times, in almost every civilization of the world, people have named them based on their size, the astronomical constellations and astrology are roughly similar. But they are not the same.

Sankranti means transition i.e. on this day, roughly, the Sun enters Capricorn. It comes after winter solstice, that is, the longest winter night after 22 December.

The Sun does not mean entering or exiting any zodiac sign that the Sun is rotating, it is part of the process of orbiting the Sun around the Earth, it is called revolutions and the Earth is able to complete one rotation of the Sun. Takes time of year.

In simple language it means that which group of stars (zodiac) the sun has come in front of.

It is said that after Makar Sankranti, the days start getting longer and the nights are shorter, this is technically correct as the sunset time in the Northern Hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere) gradually moves forward from 14-15 January. . Then comes the date of March 21, it is called Equinox when the days and nights are exactly equal. This means that the sun is almost in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere.

The gradual shift of sunset time means that the winters will be less and the heat will increase as the sun will stay in the northern hemisphere’s straight line longer.

Makar Sankranti is also called Uttarayan because the sun starts coming from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere. This process is completed on the day of summer solstice, which is the longest day, the date being 21 June.

Why only 14-15 January?
Makar Sankranti means the transition period for the sun to enter Capricorn from Sagittarius. By the way, all Hindu calendars prevalent in India are based on the Moon, which is why the English dates of Hindu festivals vary.

The calendar that is used at this time is called the Gregorian calendar which is the solar calendar i.e. the calendar based on the Sun.

Makar Sankranti is a festival which is celebrated according to the position of the Sun compared to the Earth, which is why due to slight manipulation of the position of the Moon on January 14, sometimes on the 15th, but the Sun’s main The English date does not change due to being a role.